Артикль (The article)

Автор: Maxvel 4-12-2015, 18:20

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Артикль не имеет самостоятельного значения и является определителем существительного. В английском языке есть два артикля: неопределенный a (an) и определенный the. Неопределенный артикль имеет два варианта написания и произношения: а [ә] — перед словами, начинающимися с согласной (a boy, a pen), и an [әn] — перед словами, начинающимися с гласной (an apple). Определенный артикль the также имеет два варианта произношения: the [δә] — перед словами, начинающимися с согласной (the boy) и the [δi:] — перед словами, начинающимися с гласной (the apple). Наличие артикля исключает употребление других определителей существительного: указательного, притяжательного, неопределенного местоимений и т. д.

а

the

my

this                             bag

some

Pete’s

 

Неопределенный артикль произошел от числительного один и поэтому может употребляться перед исчисляемыми существительными в единственном числе, давая понятия о предмете, обозначая название предмета или класса, к которому относится предмет. В русском языке перед таким существительным можно поставить слова один, какой-то, любой.

Give me a book, please. Дайте мне, пожалуйста, книгу (какую-нибудь, любую).

Определенный артикль the произошел от указательного местоимения that (тот). The употребляется как с исчисляемыми существительными в единственном и множественном числе, так и с неисчисляемыми существительными. Существительные с определенным артиклем обозначают не название предмета, вещества, а конкретный, данный предмет, который рассматривается как уже известный и говорящему, и слушающему.

Give me the books that I gave you yesterday. Дайте мне (те самые) книги, которые я дал вам вчера.

  

УПОТРЕБЛЕНИЕ НЕОПРЕДЕЛЕННОГО АРТИКЛЯ

 

1)c исчисляемыми существительными, когда они упоминаются впервые ;I can see a book on the table.

2)с существительным, являющимся частью составного именного сказуемого ;My brother is a doctor.

Не is a clever young man.

3)с существительным после оборота there is ..., а также после it is ..., this is ... ;There is a new music school in our street.

It is a pen. This is a pencil.

4)после слов such, rather, quite, what ;Tom is such a nice boy.

5)с существительными в роли приложения ;My grandmother, a schoolteacher, is

on pension now.

6)перед числительными a dozen, a hundred, a thousand, a million, в выражениях a lot (of), a great many of;I’ve read a lot about this author.

 

7)в некоторых оборотах: it is a pleasure, as a result, as a matter of fact, as a rule, to be in a hurry, it’s a pity, at a time, for a short (long) time, in a loud (low) voice.

8)в сочетаниях с глаголами to have, to take, to give: to have a cold, to have a good time, to have a toothache, to have a rest, to have a smoke, to take a shower, to give a hand.

 

УПОТРЕБЛЕНИЕ ОПРЕДЕЛЕННОГО АРТИКЛЯ

 

1)с существительным в единственном и множественном числе, когда говорящему ясно, о каком предмете идет речь;Here is the magazine you want to read.

Open the window, please.

2)

с существительным, которое упоминается в контексте не впервые;I saw a new film on TV yesterday. The film was not very interesting.

3)когда перед существительным стоит:

а) порядковое числительное,

 

б) прилагательное в превосходной степени,

в) одно из прилагательных:

following, last, next, same, very, only

Ho: next door, last week, last year;

 

Gagarin is the first cosmonaut of the world.

Minsk is the largest city in Belarus.

Answer the following questions. 

 

4)когда существительное имеет при себе уточняющее или ограничивающее определение;The price of fruit is high this year.

Somebody is knocking at the door of our flat.

5)c существительными, обозначающими предметы, единственные в своем роде: the Sun, the Moon, the Earth, the sky, the world, the air, а также в словосочетаниях: in the morning, in the afternoon, in the evening, in the night, in the country, in the corner, in the middle, on the right (left), on the one (other) hand, on the whole, the day before yesterday, the day after tomorrow, the other day, to go to the cinema (the pictures, the theatre), to tell the truth, to pass the time. What is the time ?The sky is blue and the sun shines brightly in summer.

The air is fresh and the ground is covered with leaves in autumn.

I get up at 7 o’clock in the morning and go to bed at 11 o’clock in the evening.

 

6)с исчисляемыми существительными, обозначая весь класс однородных предметов, а не выделяя один предмет из рода ему подобных;The cow is a domestic animal.

The article is a structural part of speech used with nouns.

The snowdrop is the first spring flower.

7)с названиями:

а) водных бассейнов, горных цепей, групп островов, пустынь,

 

б) некоторых стран и местностей,

 

в) некоторых исторических зданий (учреждений), музеев, театров, библиотек, организаций, английских газет,

 

г) сторон света: the North, the South, the East, the West ;

но: без артикля: from East to West, from North to South ;

д) при существительном, обозначающим фамилию, когда речь идет о всей семье в целом.

the Thames, the Volga, the Black Sea, the English Channel, the Atlantic Ocean, the Urals

the United States (the USA), the Crimea

the Kremlin, the British Museum, the National Gallery, the United Nations 

Organisation, The Times.

 

He works in the North.

In the West Belarus borders on Poland.

 

The Browns spend their holidays in

Italy.

8)с именами прилагательными и причастиями, превратившимися в имена существительные со значением множественного числа: the rich, the poor, the old, the young, the blind, the deaf, the sick, the dead, the disabled, the unemployed, the injured.There are special schools for the blind.

 

ОТСУТСТВИЕ АРТИКЛЯ

 

1)перед существительным, которое имеет определение, выраженное местоимением (притяжательным, указательным, вопросительным, неопределенно-личным), именем собственным в притяжательном падеже или количественным числительным;Give me your plan, please.

There are some books on the table.

This man is John’s father.

Where is room six ?

I have five English books.

Open your books at page 5 and do exercise 10.

2)с существительными во множественном числе, которые являются частью именного сказуемого;We are friends. Nick and Tom are doctors.

 

3)с неисчисляемыми существительными, если они не имеют ограничительных или уточняющих определителей;Do you like tea or coffee ?

Но: The coffee is cold. 

 

4)с названиями дней недели, месяцев и времен года;Winter begins in December.

My day off is Sunday.

5)с именами собственными;Mary, London, Pushkin Street

6)с существительными, обозначающими названия наук и учебных предметов;My favourite subject is history. My brother is good at physics.

7)в ряде устойчивых сочетаний: at night, at dinner (breakfast, supper), at home, at school, at work, at dawn (sunset), at sunrise, at first sight, in (on) time, at war, in debt, in fact, in conclusion, on board a ship, on sale, by bus (train, tram), by air, by post, by heart, by chance, by mistake, by name, day after day, day and night, to be in bed, to go to bed, after school, from morning to (till) night, from time to time;

to have breakfast (dinner, supper), to be in hospital, to keep house, to start (finish) work, to go (come, arrive, get) home.

 

 

EXERCISES

 

Exercise 1. Put in articles where necessary.

 

1. These … flowers are beautiful. 2. … textbook is in … bag. 3. I live in ... Kirov Street. 4. We have … five exams in winter. 5. My parents are … engineers. 6. Where is … book ? 7. Meet … engineers from … Moscow. 8. Here are … your books. 9. … Mr. Black will come at five. 10. … Thames is … river. 11. He told me … way to … theatre.

 

Exercise 2. Insert the articles.

 

1. ... Volga is … longest river in ... European part of ... Russia. 2. I’d like to go on ... excursion to ... Crimea. 3. There is ... stadium not far from our ... house. ... stadium is ... largest in our town. 4. My brother is a pupil of ... 8th form and he wants to become ... engineer. 5. ... chemistry is his favourite subject at ... school. 6. ... children like ... ice-cream. 7. Can you tell me ... way to ... theatre ? 8. Here is ... book you need. 9. ... walls of our classroom are yellow.

 

Exercise 3. Use the proper article.

 

1. …woman of about thirty-five detached herself from the group and rushed along the steps to Ellie. …woman was looking at me and Ellie said quietly, “Let me introduce – Mr.Rogers, Mrs.Bennington.”

2. I found Ellie sitting in the central lounge and opposite her was … tall blonde young woman. …women were talking.

3. Suddenly … white rabbit with pink eyes ran close by her. … Rabbit actually took … watch out of its waistcoat - pocket and looked at it.

4. Alice opened … door and found that it led into … small passage; she knelt down and looked along … passage into … loveliest garden you ever saw.

5. This time she found … little bottle on it, and tied round … neck of … bottle was … paper label with … words “DRINK ME”.

6. … enormous puppy was looking down at her with large brown eyes. She picked up a little bit of stick, and held it out to … puppy; whereupon … puppy jumped into … air. 

7. She peeped over … edge of … mushroom, and her eyes immediately met those of … large blue caterpillar. …Caterpillar and Alice looked at each other in silence.

8. Suddenly … footman in livery came running out of … wood. … Footman began by producing from under his arm … great letter.

 

Exercise 4. Use the proper article. 

1. I went up … winding road that led out of … village.

2. From … time I left school I wanted to find something, but I didnt yet know what that something was going to be.

3. “A very fine example of the artists work”, said … man who was holding the picture.

4. Most of … rich people Ive known have been fairly miserable.

5. I took a violent dislike to … man and his wife I was driving.

6. “That was a dull business”, I said to one of … country-looking fellows whom I was next to as I went out.

7. And so I came to … spot in … road where I first saw Ellie.

8. I had told her a lot about Santonix and about … houses hed built.

9. My whole belief in life was based on … fact that Ellie loved me.

10. Its not going to be … life that youve led.

11. Im … person whos bought it.

 

Exercise 5. Use the proper article.

 

Seasons

I.… year is divided into four seasons: … spring, … summer, … autumn, and … winter. In … spring … Nature awakes from her long winter sleep. The trees are filled with … new life, … earth is warmed by … rays of … sun, and the weather gets gradually milder. The fields and meadows are covered with … fresh green grass. … Sky is blue and cloudless. At … night, … millions of … stars shine in … darkness.

II.When … summer comes, … weather gets warmer still and sometimes it’s very hot. It’s the farmer’s busy season – he works in his fields from … morning till … night. The grass must be out and the hay must be made, while … dry weather lasts. Sometimes … skies are overcast with … heavy clouds. There are … storms with … thunder, … lightning and … hail.

III.… Autumn brings with it … harvest-time when the crops are gathered in and the fruit is picked in … orchards. The woods turn yellow and brown, … leaves begin to fall from the trees, and … ground is covered with them. … Skies are grey, and very often it rains.

IV.When … winter comes, we’re obliged to spend more time indoors because out of … doors it’s cold. We may get … fog, … sleet and … frost. … Ponds, … lakes, … rivers and … streams are frozen. The trees are bare. … Bitter north winds have stripped them of all their leaves.

(From London Linguaphone Course)

 

Exercise 6 Use the proper article. Pay attention to the use of the article with the names of meals.

 

1. A servant announced … dinner.  2. She wouldn’t go in to … supper with anyone but Winton.  3. “We only learned ourselves before … dinner”, said Lady Muriel.  4. After … breakfast he rose from … table and lighted … cigarette.  5. At … lunch … rain was still pouring down.  6. It was… cold lunch. 7. At…lunch Mariette told him with … pride that this evening … cinema would be open.  8. I wonder why it is that I always wake up so cold in … mornings now. It’s because I don’t have … good hot dinner in … evenings.  9. “I shall be back about … tea-time, I expect,” she said “There’s no one coming for … dinner.”  10. He had to stand aside for the maid to carry in … luncheon.  11. That evening at … dinner, she was just as usual.  12. I must go and look at … dinner.  13. When I got back … breakfast was already on … table and Ted had just started.  14. At … end of … meal we were served with … coffee.  15. I looked into … kitchen. Mary-Ann was putting … supper on … tray to take it into … dinning-room.  16. They got … table by … window and Edward ordered … excellent lunch.  17. … breakfast was not yet over before the men came to put up the marquee.  18. … lunch was over by half past one.

 

Exercise 7 Use the proper article. Pay attention to the use of the article with the nouns “school”, “bed”, “town” and “hospital”.

 

I. 1. Felicity certainly wants to leave … school.  2. They had met through … Labour Party activities when Mor had been teaching in … school on … south side of London.  3. “I suppose I can’t give either of you … lift back to … school?” … Invitation did not sound very whole-hearted.  4. Demoyte was … former headmaster, now retired, but still living in his large house near to … school.  5. … St. Bride’s became, dare we say it, sound and … reputable public school of … second class.

II. 1. Then he found out that he could not stay in … bed.  2. He went to … bed and slept excellently.  3. He got into … bed but could not sleep.  4. He found Dora lying on … bed in their bedroom reading … novel.  5. I’ll bring you up some coffee and … egg in … bed.

III. 1. To him it was inconceivable that … intelligent man should be happy to live in … provincial town.  2. … Dusk was falling in … desert town of Eldorado when Bob Eden alighted from … train.  3. He had some school business in London, and they had agreed that she should meet him after … lunch when it was done and they should spend … rest of … day in … town.  4. Eddie was in … terrific rush when he got back to … town.  5. How long have you been in … town?  6. I must get back  to … town after … dinner.

 

Exercise 8 Use the proper article.

I’d had two more trips to … Continent, one to … France and … other to … Germany. 2. It was when I was in … Hamburg that things came to a crisis. 3. I asked what her … Uncle Frank was like. 4. She and her family had been in … south of … France. 5. You also have the house in … Long Island wherever you care to visit it. 6. We were considering … French impressionist picture, … Cezanne, I think, it was. 

7. William … Conqueror, whose cause was favoured by … pope, was soon submitted to by … English, who wanted Leaders, and had been of Late much accustomed to … usurpation and … conquest.

Tеst 1

 

       Choose the right answer:

 

1. I am listening to … music on … radio.

a) the, the     b) -, -      c) the, -      d) a, - 

 

2. ... Weather is nice today, isn’t it?

a) -      b) the     c) a     d) an      

 

3) Look, what … long hair that boy has?    

a) the      b) a      c) -      d) an

 

4) My neighbour is a writer. Let’s ask him for … advice about your composition.

a) an      b) -     c) a     d) the 

 

5) Alice went out of … water very quickly as she had got a mouthful of … salt water.

a) -, a      b) the, the      c) the, -      c) the, a

 

6) The exploration of the west was tied to the search for … gold.

a) -      b) the      c) an      d) a

 

7) We are having … chicken and … Spanish rice for dinner. 

a) -, -      b) the, the      c) the, a      d) the, -

 

8) Could you give me … information I asked for in my letter? 

a) the      b) an      c) a     d) – 

 

9) Please give me a cup of coffee with … cream.

a) a      b) the      c) -     d) an

 

10) Did you have … lovely time at the picnic? 

a) a      b) the      c) an      d) –

 

11) Thank you! It’s such … good advice.

a) a      b) an      c) -      d) the  

 

12) My favourite subject at school was … Mathematics.

a) a      b) -      c) an      d) the 

 

13) I bought … bottle of milk, I put … milk into the fridge.

a) -, -      b) a, the      c) the, a      d) an, a

 

14) What’s this? – It’s cheese. Is … cheese fresh or stale? – It’s fresh.

a) the      b) a      c) an      d) – 

 

15) … air was fresh and clean. 

a) a      b) an      c) the      d) -  

 

 

Tеst 2

1. She hopes to hear from you in … day or two. 

a) a      b) the      c) -      d) an 

 

2. This is … amusing film. I like it very much.

a) a      b) an      c) the      d) – 

 

3. My mother is … teacher. 

a) the      b) a      c) -     d) an 

 

4. … fact is, tomorrow is my girl-friend’s birthday.

a) -      b) an      c) the       d) a

 

5) I’ll keep my … fingers crossed for you. 

a) the      b) a      c) -      d) a

 

6) It’s … third time you ask me … same questions.

a) the, the      b) a, -      c) -, the      d) a, a 

 

7) What … ugly house this is!

a) a      b) the      c) an      d) – 

 

8) … war is a terrible thing.

a) the      b) -      c) a      d) an

 

9) … two missing explorers have been found safe and sound.

a) -      b) the      c) a       d) an

 

10) He made … mistake. … mistake was silly.

a) a, the      b) the, the      c) a, a      d) -, -

 

11) Where’s … bag? It’s gone. 

a) a      b) an      c) -      d) the

 

12) Look at … ear-rings! Do you like them? 

a) a       b) an       c) -      d) the 

 

13) What is … smallest room in this hotel? 

a) the      b) an      c) a      d) -  

 

14) Turn over … page 20. 

a) a      b) an      c) -      d) the

 

15) Where’s … conductor?

a) a      b) an      c) the      d) – 

 

 

 

Tеst  3

1. … Mississippi is one of the longest rivers in the world. 

a) a      b) the      c) an      d) –

 

2. Have you ever been to … Scotland? 

a) a      b) the      c) an      d) – 

 

3. … Great Britain is the name of the largest island of … British Isles.

a) the, the      b) an, the      c) a, a      d) -, the 

 

4. There are a lot of alligators in … Nile. 

a) a      b) an      c) -      d) the 

 

5. This ship sank somewhere near … Bermudas.

a) -      b) a      c) the      d) an 

 

6. What’s on at … “Olympus”?

a) a      b) an      c) -      d) the 

 

7. When in London we couldn’t help visiting … National Gallery.

a) -      b) a      c) an      d) the 

 

8. We first of all went to … Louvre.

a) a      b) an      c) the      d) – 

 

9. While in Spain we visited … Prado Art Museum.

a) a      b) an      c) -      d) the 

 

10) We made a short trip to … Netherlands. 

a) the      b) a      c) an      d) –

 

11) He sailed from Southampton down … English Channel.

a) an      b) a      c) the      d) – 

 

12) We get tea mostly from … China and … India.

a) -, the      b) the, -      c) a, a      d) -, - 

 

13) … Grants are the couple with whom we are negotiating.

a) -      b) the      c) a      d) an

 

14) … Lake Erie is one of the five Great lakes in … North America.

a) -, -      b) the, the      c) the, a      d) the, a

 

15) When did you arrive at … Heathrow airport?

a) a      b) an      c) the      d) – 



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