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Национальные традиции и обычаи Великобритании. Религия.Грамматическая тема: Имя прилагательное (степени сравнения)

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Study the words and the word-combinations.

 

a custom — обычай

a tradition — традиция

a foreigner — иностранец

a peculiarity — особенность

fascinating — очаровательный

stage — инсценировать

annually — ежегодно

escort — сопровождать

a coach — карета

jewels — драгоценности

a sack — мешок

wool — шерсть

powerful — могущественный

a row — ряд

a fireplace — камин

central heating — центральное отопление

two-storied — двухэтажный

a side — сторона

complete — полный, совершенный

freedom — свобода

conduct — руководить

propagate — пропагандировать

established — учрежденный

clergy — духовенство

armed forces — вооруженные силы

a prison — тюрьма

a salary — зарплата

appoint — назначать

an adherent — приверженец

tolerant — терпимый (о человеке)

 

I.Complete the sentences using the following words:

 

Foreigners, freedom, salary, customs, traditions, annually, propagate, row, two-storied, appointed, staged.

 

1)National holidays, … and … of any country are closely connected with the history of this country.

2)Every year a lot of … visit Great Britain.

3)Different traditional ceremonies are held in Great Britain … .

4)People in Britain prefer to live in … houses.

5)Going down the street, she walked past a long … of houses.

6)This ceremony is usually … in front of Buckingham Palace.

7)There is complete religious … in the UK.

8)Churches and religious societies may … their beliefs in speech or writing.

9)The Prime Minister is … by the Queen.

10)Clergy of the established churches are paid a … by the State.

 

II.Translate into English.

 

Полная свобода, центральное отопление, назначить министра, сопровождать эскортом, ехать в карете, мешок шерсти, ряд скамеек, вооруженные силы, сильная страна, учрежденные церкви, национальные тюрьмы.

 

III.Complete the sentences.

 

1.Every nation has…

2.All the ceremonies…

3.The Queen opens the parliament…

4.The Englishmen prefer houses…

5.In Britain the cars keep…

6.Twenty four senior bishops sit…

7.In Great Britain there are adherents…

8.Sheep wool made England…

 

a)with a fireplace and a garden

b)to the left side of road

c)with a speech in the House of Lords

d)in the House of Lords

e)its own customs and traditions

f)rich and powerful

g)of practically every world religion

h)are fascinating

 

IV. Read the text.

Customs and traditions in the UK

 

Every nation and every country has its own customs and traditions. Foreigners coming to Britain are struck at once by quite a number of customs and peculiarities in the English life.

Some ceremonies are traditional, such as the Changing of the Guard at Buckingham Palace, Trooping the Colour, the State Opening of Parliament. The Ceremony of Trooping the Colour is one of the most fascinating. It is staged in front of Buckingham Palace. It is held annually on the monarch’s birthday which is the second Saturday in June. Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II is Colonel-in-Chief of the Life Guards. She is escorted by Horse Guard riding to the Parade. The ceremony is accompanied by the music of bands. The procession is headed by the Queen.

In England the Queen opens the parliament once a year, she goes to the Houses of Parliament in the golden coach, and she wears the crown and the crown jewels. She opens the Parliament with a speech in the House of Lords.

In the House of Lords, Chancellor sits on the sack of wool. This tradition comes from the old times when sheep wool made England rich and powerful.

In the House of Commons there are two rows of benches: one row is for the government and the other one is for the opposition.

The Englishmen have love for old things. They prefer houses with a fireplace and a garden to a flat, modern houses with central heating. The houses are traditionally not very high. They are usually two-storied. British buses are double-decked and red, mail-boxes are yellow, the cars keep to the left side of road – all these are traditions.

Religion has always played an important part in the national way of life. There is complete religious freedom in the United Kingdom. Churches and religious societies may own property, conduct schools, and propagate their beliefs in speech and writing.

There are two established churches: in England the Church of England (Anglican), and in Scotland the Church of Scotland (Presbyterian). Clergy of the established churches work in services which are run by the State, such as the armed forces, national hospitals and prisons, and are paid a salary by the State. Clergy of other religious communities are also appointed.

Though nominally Christian, Great Britain contains adherents of practically every world religion who are free to practice their particular beliefs in a tolerant and free society.

 

IV.Answer the following questions:

 

1)What are foreigners coming to Britain struck at?

2)Who opens the parliament in Britain? How often?

3)What ceremonies are traditional in Britain?

4)Where does Chancellor sit in the House of Lords? Why?

5)What houses do the Englishmen prefer to live?

6)What colour are the buses and mail-boxes in Britain?

7)What are the two established churches in Britain?

 

VI. Mark the sentences below as “True” or “False”:

 

1)In Britain Chancellor opens parliament once a year.

2)In the Houses of Lords, Chancellor sits on the sack of wool.

3)The Ceremony of Trooping the Colour is staged in front of Buckingham Palace.

4)The Ceremony of Trooping the Colour is held annually on the monarch’s official birthday.

5)In the House of Commons there are three rows of benches.

6)British buses are yellow, mail-boxes are red.

7)The Englishmen prefer to live in one-storied houses.

8)Great Britain contains adherents of practically every world religion.

 

V.Write questions to this answers:

 

1)The Ceremony of Trooping the Colour is staged in front of Buckingham Palace. (Where)

2)The monarch’s official birthday is on the second Saturday in June. (When)

3)In England the Queen opens the Parliament once a year. (How often)

4)Chancellor sits on the sack of wool. (Where)

5)The Englishmen have love for old things. (Do)

6)Great Britain contains adherents of practically every world religion. (Does)

 

VI.Complete the sentences with the words from the box below.

 

1)Every nation and every country has its own … and … .

2)The Ceremony of Trooping the Colour is the most … .

3)The Queen goes to the House of Parliament in the golden … .

4)Sheep … made England rich and powerful.

5)In the House of Commons there are two … of benches.

6)In Britain the cars keep to the left … of road.

7)The Englishmen prefer modern houses with … .

8)Churches and religious societies own property, … schools, and propagate their beliefs in speech and writing. 

9)Clergy of the … churches work in services which are run by the State.

10)Great Britain contains … of practically every world religion. 

Row, side, central heating, customs, traditions, adherents, fascinating, wool, conduct, established, coach.

 

 

 

Праздники общественные и религиозные. Грамматическая тема: Наречие (степени сравнения).

 

           Study the vocabulary:

 

movable — переносный, подвижный

rush — спешка

a bauble — игрушка

bustle — суматоха, суета

expectation – ожидание

tinsel – мишура

a holly – остролист

carols – Рождественские песни

Christmas – Рождество

Easter – Пасха

a bun – булочка

signify – выражать, означать

reawakening – пробуждение

bank holidays – банковские праздники

apart from – кроме, независимо от

flock – устремляться

a fair – ярмарка

pitch – устанавливать, ставить

boating activity – лодочные гонки

a pancake – блин

observe – соблюдать, наблюдать

lent – Великий Пост

an opportunity – возможность

commemorate – праздновать (годовщину)

the Gunpowder Plot – «Пороховой заговор»

search – обыскивать, искать

an effigy – изображение, портрет

an explosion – взрыв

a sweetheart – возлюбленный

exchange – обмениваться

 

I.Study the following expressions and translate them into Russian:

 

A great air of expectation, coloured lights, Christmas cards, to sing carols, to go for a drive, to give and receive presents, boating activity, large fairs, to give an opportunity, to be widely observed.

 

II.Match the English expressions with their Russian equivalents.

 

1)Rush and bustle

2)To decorate trees with tinsel

3)To sing carols

4)Boating activity

5)To signify nature’s reawakening

6)Large fairs

7)To pitch on the open spaces

8)To give an opportunity

9)A ceremonial search

10)Bank holidays

 

a)Украшать деревья мишурой

b)Большие ярмарки

c)Спешка и суматоха

d)Дать возможность

e)Лодочные гонки

f)Церемониальный обыск

g)Устанавливать на свободных местах

h)Петь Рождественские песни

i)Банковские праздники

j)Означать пробуждение природы

 

 

III. Read the text.

Holidays in Britain

 

There are 6 public holidays in Great Britain, such as: Christmas Day, Boxing Day, Good Friday, Easter Monday and Spring and Late Summer Bank Holidays. People need not go to work on these days. They are movable (except Christmas and Boxing Day), that is they do not fall on the same day each year.

Christmas. Everything is rush and bustle. There is a great air of expectation. The British decorate trees with tinsel, various baubles and coloured lights. They decorate their houses with holly. Christmas cards are arranged everywhere. In small towns and villages people sing carols.

Boxing Day. People visit friends, go for a drive or for a long walk or just sit around recovering from too much food after Christmas dinner. Everything to eat is cold.

Easter. It is the time when certain old traditions are observed. It is the time for giving and receiving presents traditionally in the form of an Easter egg, hot-cross buns, and spring-time flowers to signify nature’s reawakening.

Bank Holidays. 4 times a year the banks are closed on Monday apart from traditional week-ends. The townsfolk usually flock into the country and to the coast. Bank Holiday is also an occasion for big sport meetings, mainly all kinds of athletics. There are also horse race meetings all over the country and most traditional of all these are large fairs. These fairs are pitched on open spaces of common land. There is also much boating activity on the Thames.

There are also different festivals, anniversaries and simply days which are ordinary working days and on which certain traditions are observed.

Pancake Day is characterized by merry-making and eating of pancakes.

Mothering Day is traditionally observed on the fourth Sunday in Lent. Mothering Sunday was established as a holiday for the girls working away from home to give them an opportunity of going home to see their parents. This is usually in March.

Guy Fawkes Night is celebrated in November, the 5th. It is observed annually before opening of Parliament to commemorate the Gunpowder Plot – the conspiracy to destroy the English Houses of Parliament on November 5, 1605. It is still commemorated by an official ceremonial search before the annual opening of Parliament, the burning of Fawkes’s effigy and the explosion of fireworks.

St. Valentine’s Day is celebrated on the 14th of February. It is the day when boys and girls, sweethearts and lovers, husbands and wives, friends and neighbours, and even the office staff will exchange comment, and the quick modern way to do it is with a Valentine card.

Remembrance Day is observed throughout Britain in commemoration of British soldiers, sailors and airmen who lost their lives during the 2 World Wars. On that day special services are held in the churches.

New Year is not as widely observed as Christmas. Some people ignore it; others celebrate it in one way or another.

In Trafalgar Square there is a big New Year tree, a big crowd, and someone usually falls into the fountain.

January the 1st, New Year’s Day, is not a public holiday, unfortunately for those who like to celebrate most of the night.

 

IV. Answer the questions on the text.

 

1)What holidays in the UK do you know?

2)How is Christmas celebrated?

3)Why do people like to rest on Boxing Day?

4)What kind of holiday is Easter?

5)What do people do on Bank Holiday?

6)What are the other holidays which are ordinary working days?

7)Why was Mothering Sunday established?

8)When is Guy Fawkes Night observed? Why?

9)Is New Year widely observed in Britain?

10)Where is a big New Year tree situated in London?

 

V. Mark the statements below as “True” or “False”.

 

1)There are 8 Public holidays in Great Britain.

2)In small town and villages people sing carols on Christmas.

3)Easter is the time for giving and receiving presents, traditionally in the form of an egg.

4)There are horse races all over the country on New Year.

5)On St. Valentine Day people exchange Valentine cards.

6)Mothering Day is traditionally observed on the first Sunday in Lent.

7)Pancake Day is characterized by merry-making and eating of pancakes.

8)The fairs on Bank Holidays are pitched on open spaces of common land.

 

        VI. Complete the sentences according to the text.

 

1)There are 6 Public holidays in Great Britain such as…

2)The British decorate trees with…

3)It is the time for giving and receiving presents, traditionally in the form of…

4)Bank Holiday is also an occasion for…

5)Pancake Day is characterized by…

6)Mothering Day is traditionally observed on…

7)Guy Fawkes Night is commemorated by…

8)Remembrance Day is observed throughout Britain in commemoration of…

9)In Trafalgar Square there is…

10)January the 1st, New Year’s Day isn’t a…

 

     VII. Choose the best definition of the words below.

 

1)Gunpowder is

a)Exploding powder

b)Used for guns

c)Used to light fires  

 

2)“To commemorate” means

a)To feel sad

b)To celebrate an important event

c)To forget something

 

3)“To plot something” means

a)To draw a picture

b)To plan something in secret

c)To cover in water

 

4)    An effigy is

a)A ghost

b)A special person

c)A model of a person 

 

      5)   “Annually” means

a)Every year

b)Every day

c)Every month

 

6)    “A firework” means

a)A good fire

b)A very big fire

c)An artistic fire



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