Study the words and the word-combinations.
spoil — испортить
mysterious — таинственный
merry — весёлый
smart — нарядный
disguise — переодеваться
carol — рождественский гимн
bear — носить
amateur — любитель
forefathers — предки
barley — ячмень
immortality — бессмертие
eternity — вечность
vagrant — бродячий
coincide — совпадать
I. Match the English words and their Russian equivalents.
1. eternityа. ярмарка
2. fairb. бессмертие
3. mysteriousс. вечность
4. vagrantd. избавляться от
5. smartе. предки
6. to get rid off.бродячий
7. forefathersg. веселый
8. merryh. таинственный
9. immortalityi. переодеваться
10. disguisej. нарядный
II. Make sure you know all the words in the box. Then read their definitions and match the words with their definitions:
tambourine, fair, disguise, vagrant, coincide, eternity, amateur, bear, carol, smart
> song of joy or praise, especially a Christmas hymn;
> change the appearance (in order to deceive);
> leading a wandering life;
> small, shallow drum with metal discs in the rim played by striking
with the knuckles and shaking it at the same time;
> person who paints pictures, performs music, acts in plays, for the
love of it, not for money;
> bright, new-looking, well-dressed;
> happen at the same time;
> market held periodically in a particular place, often with
> time without end; the future life; period of time that seems
III. Combine the words with the help of the preposition of:
1. groupsa. everything bad
2. many countriesb. Christ’s birth place
3. the masksс. life
4. a sortd. «Kalyady»
5. a symbole. Goats and Bears
6. eternityf. immortality
7. the nameg. the world
8. holidayh. porridge
9. to get ridi. merry young boys and girls
IV. Give the Russian equivalents to the following words and phrases:
the joy that isn’t even spoiled by falling snow or severe frost; the sun turns its gaze towards spring; people are enjoying themselves; each person in the procession; sing carols; to thank them for well-wishing and carol-singing; save and protect people’s lives; a symbol of immortality and eternity of life; with joy and optimism.
V. Read the text.
«KALYADY» HAS COME
If you want to experience real joy — the joy that isn't even spoiled by falling snow or severe frost — you should come to Belarus when «Kalyady» is being celebrated. Catholics celebrate it from December, 25 to January, 6 when the sun turns its gaze towards spring and the days begin to become longer. As for Orthodox Christians and the old calendar, the mysterious time of the year comes a bit later — it continues from January, 7 to January, 19. People say that «Kalyady» is God's holiday. In Russia, all these days and nights from Christmas till Epiphany are called «Svyatki» (Sacred Evenings) and in Belarus — «Kalaydy». It is a jolly time when people are enjoying themselves.
During «Kalyady» groups of merry young boys and girls in smart clothes go from house to house in Belarusian villages and towns. «Kalyady» celebrations have ancient, pagan traditions. In many countries of the world, people have carnivals and masquerades to see the New Year in. Such festivals are also held in Belarus.
Each person in the processions of «Kalyadouschchiki»(carol-singers) has a role according to his character and temperament: one of them bears the star, others sing carols, amateur musicians play the accordion or beat the tambourine, amateur actors are disguised as Goats, Bears, Storks, Horses, Gypsies and Old Men. Hosts and hostesses usually treat them to delicious things and thank them for well-wishing and carol-singing.
«Kalyady» is the time when three ritual suppers are cooked in every Belarusian home. They are called “Kalyadnaya Kuttzya”. Our forefathers believed that «Kyttzya» (a sort of porridge («kasha») made from barley) was sacred food which could save and protect people's lives. So «Kuttzya» was a symbol of immortality and eternity of life.
On «Kalyady» Belarusians like to visit each other, celebrate weddings and arrange fairs. By the way, it was at the fairs in the old days when vagrant musicians and puppetters gave their performances. Small puppet theatres called «Batleika» were popular in Belarus. They acted out stories about Christ from the Bible. Some people think that the word «Batleika» originated from the word « Bethlehem» - the name of Christ's birth-place. So we can say that our theatre has its roots in «Kalyady».
The pagan holiday of «Kalyady» coincided later with Christmas, which was celebrated by Christians. The main purpose of «Kalyady» is to get rid of everything bad in one’s life and to begin a new life cycle with joy and optimism.
VI. Answer the questions:
1. When do Belarusians celebrate «Kalyady»? 2. What do people say about «Kalyady»? 3. What are the typical entertainments during «Kalyady»? 4. How long do «Svyatki» last? 5. What do amateur actors wear? 6. How are three ritual suppers at «Kalyady» called? 7. Our forefathers believed that «Kuttzya» was sacred food, didn’t they? 8. What is «Kuttzya» made of? 9. What do Belarusians like to do during «Kalyady»? 10. What do you know about «Batleika»? 11. What is the main purpose of «Kalyady»?
VII. Agree or disagree with the following statements:
1. In Belarus Catholics celebrate «Kalyady» in February. 2. During «Kalyady» a lot of young boys and girls dressed in rags go from house to house and beg for food and drink. 3. Each person in the processions of «Kalyadouschchiki» bears a star and is disguised as a Goat. 4. Amateur musicians play the piano. 5. People in the street give money to these amateur actors. 6. In every Belarusian family three ritual breakfasts are cooked during «Kalyady». 7. The ritual food is called «Kalyadny Kulesh». 8. On «Kalyady» Belarusians like to organize family dinners and invite their relatives. 9. The main purpose of «Kalyady» is to get rid of the old furniture.
VIII. Put in the right prepositions where necessary:
1. As ... Orthodox Christians and the old calendar, the mysterious time ... the year comes ... a bit later — it continues ... January, 7 ... January, 19. 2. ... Russia, all ... these days and nights ... Christmas ... Epiphany are called «Svyatki» (Sacred Evenings) and ... Belarus — «Kalyady». 3. ... «Kalyady», groups ... merry young boys and girls ... smart clothes go ... house ... house ... Belarusian villages and towns. 4. ... many countries ... the world, people have carnivals and masquerades to see the New Year ... . 5. The pagan holiday ... «Kalyady» coincided later ... Christmas, which was celebrated ... Christians. 6. The main purpose ... «Kalyady» is to get rid ... everything bad ... one’s life and to begin a new life cycle ... joy and optimism.
IX. Choose the best alternative according to the text:
1. Orthodox Christians celebrate «Kalyady»
a) from December, 25 to January, 6
b) from January, 1 to January, 7
c) from January, 7 to January, 19
2. People consider that «Kalyady» is
a) a dull holiday and never celebrate it
b) is a holiday for small children only
c) a merry holiday and celebrate it with pleasure
3. During «Kalyady», groups of merry young boys and girls
a) organize rock music concerts in Belarusian villages and towns
b) go carol-singing in Belarusian villages and towns
c) make snow-men in Belarusian villages and towns
4. Each of the carol-singers
a) has a present for passers-by
b) suggests his project of this holiday
c) plays a part according to his personality
5. Amateur actors
a) are disguised or wear masks
b) treat hosts and hostesses to delicious things
c) cook «Kuttzya» and treat passers-by to it
6. Amateur musicians
a) play the accordion or beat the tambourine
b) thank hosts and hostesses for carol-singing
c) teach passers-by to play the accordion
7. The host and the hostess usually treat «Kalyadouschchiki»
a) with suspicion
b) to tasty things
c) as if they were mad.
8. Three ritual suppers are prepared in every Belarusian home
a) during «Kalyady»
b) on the New Year Eve
c) on Christmas Eve.
9. Our ancestors were convinced that «Kuttzya» was sacred food which
a) could protect people from the evil eye
b) was necessary for people to live long
c) was blessed food
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