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Знаменитые люди Беларуси

Автор: Maxvel 4-01-2016, 12:20

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Study the vocabulary:

 

contribution— вклад

indignant — негодующий

muse — муза

commemorate — увековечивать

wild — дикий

depict — описывать

tribe — племя

miner — шахтер

ore — руда

demand — требование

unbearable — невыносимый

accessible — доступный

revolt — восстание

appoint — назначать

discover — открывать, находить

deposit — залежь

copper — медь

trace — след

mountain-range — горный хребет

violet — фиалка

 

 

EXERCISES

 

I. Read the international words and try to guess their meaning:

 

secret, mineralogy, physics, chemistry, metallurgy, geography, botany, geology, pedagogy, ethnography, zoology, geologist, botanist, zoologist, professor, vertical, corridor, democratic, reform, exposition.

 

II. Match the English words and their Russian equivalents:

 

1. copperа. невыносимый

2. to take outb. разработать

3. unbearableс. шахтер

4. a revoltd. доставать

5. to work oute. требование

6. accessiblef. медь

7. demandg. доступный

8. to commemorateh. восстание

9. a mineri. залежь

10. a depositj. увековечивать

 

III. Make sure you know all the words in the box. Then read their definitions and match the words with their definitions:

 

tribe, put down, muse, appoint, desert, unbearable, revolt, deposit, accessible, miss, take into consideration, depict, indignant

 

> describe in words; show in the form of a picture;

> include in one's study, calculations,etc.; consider;

> layer of solid matter left behind (often buried in the earth) after 

 having been naturally accumulated;

> suppress by force or authority;

> angry at injustice;

> large area of baren land, waterless and treeless, often sand-covered;

> racial group especially one united by language and customs, living

 as a community under one or more chiefs;

> that cannot be tolerated;

> poet's genius; spirit that inspires a poet;

> able to be reached, used, visited, etc.;

> choose for a post;

> rebellion, uprising;

> feel regret at the absence of smth./smb.

 

IV. Write the derivatives of the following words:

 

to found, to know, a nation, to govern, to bear.

 

V. Give the Russian equivalents to the following words and word combinations:

 

a well-known fact; a member of the philamat’s secret society; he discovered rich deposits; depicted his friend in the image of; his muse and unhappy love; unbearable conditions of miners’ work; to work out the school reform; was declared a national hero, was indignant with.

 

VI. Read the text.

 

THE YEAR OF IGNAT DAMEIKA

 

It is a well-known fact that in the 19th century a lot of outstanding people of Belarus had to leave their native land because of the political situation. One of them was Ignat Dameika, a member of the philamat’s secret society and a participant of the revolt of 1830. This son of Belarusian land made a great contribution to different branches of human knowledge: mineralogy; physics, chemistry, metallurgy, geography, botany, geology, pedagogy, ethnography and zoology. Adam Maltis wrote about him: “Take a map and look at Chile. By the Pacific Ocean there is Dameika town. In the north there is a mountain-range named after Dameika. Geologists can name Dameika’s mineral, botanists – Dameika’s violet, zoologists – Dameika’s small fish”.

Speaking of Dameika we shouldn't forget that he discovered rich deposits of silver and copper. He wrote 130 scientific works which were translated into French, Russian, German, English and other languages. It’s a pity but they were not translated into Belarusian.

UNESCO announced 2002 the year of Ignat Dameika.

Ignat Dameika was born in 1802 in Medvedka village not far from Mir (now it is Karelitsky region). In 1816 he graduated from Shchuchin college and entered the University of Vilno. Here he made friends with Yan Chachot, Tomash Zanam and Adam Mitskevich. Adam Mitskevich was his best friend. In his poem “Dzyady” A.Mitskevich depicted his friend Ignat Dameika in the image of Zhegota. The members of the philamat's secret society commemorated Medvedka (which they visited very often) in their poem “Pan Tadeush”. It was Ignat Dameika who introduced his sister Mariya Vereshchaka to Adam Mitskevich.The poet fell in love with her. Mariya became his muse and unhappy love.

They took an active part in the revolt of 1830 but when it was put down Adam Mitskevich and Ignat Dameika had to go to Paris. In 1836 Ignat Dameika finished Gon's school and he was invited to Chile to teach chemistry and mineralogy in Kikimba. Later on he became a professor at the University of Chile and in 1863-1883 he was appointed rector of the University. Dameika was the first to organize expeditions to the Andes, Chile-Argentina Andes, Atakama desert and Arakanie (where the wild tribes of Indians lived). He described his experiences in his book «Arakania and its inhabitants».

While travelling Dameika visited some mines and was indignant with unbearable conditions of miners' work. They took out the ore they gained on their backs moving along the narrow vertical corridors. Dameika sent a letter to the government with the demands to improve the working conditions of the miners. The government took into consideration his opinion and the working conditions were improved.

The government of Chile asked Dameika to work out the school reform. Due to his efforts education in Chile became more democratic and accessible.

 

VII. Answer the questions:

1. Some outstanding people couldn’t live and work in their homeland. Is it true about the Belarus of the 19th century? 2. What was Ignat Dameika? 3. What is written about him by Adam Maltis? 4. What was Dameika’s contribution to the world of science? 5. What year is announced the year of Dameika? 6. Where and when was he born? 7. What education did he receive? 8. Who were his friends? 9. Who was his best friend? 10. In his poem «Dzyady» A.Mitskevich depicted his friend in the image of Zhegota, didn’t he? 11. Who was Adam Mitskevich’s muse? 12. Why did A.Mitskevich and I.Dameika go to Paris ? 13. What did Dameika do in Kikimba ? 14. What university did he work in Chile? 15. What expeditions did he organize? 16. How did he manage to help the miners? 17. What was he asked to do by the government of Chile? 18. We can be proud of our famous countryman Ignat Dameika, can’t we?

 

VIII. Agree or disagree with the following statements:

 

1. Many of the best sons of Belarus couldn’t live and work on the territory of their Motherland because they were looking for a better life. 2. Ignat Dameika was one of the famous teachers of our country. 3. He wrote many books on education and they were translated into all African languages. 4. UNESCO announced 2002 the year of Ignat Dameika. 5. Ignat Dameika was born in 1802 in Grodno. 6. He went to Paris to study. 7. Dameika went to Chile to write his books. 8. He tried to help working people. 9. When in Chile he travelled a lot. 10. He wrote about his experiences in his books. 11. He died in Belarus.

 

IX. Put in the right prepositions where necessary:

 

1. This son of Belarusian land made a great contribution ... different branches ... human knowledge. 2. Ignat Damiaka was born ... 1802 ... Medvedka village not far ... Mir (now it is Karelitsky region). 3. It’s a pity but his works were not translated ... Belarusian. 4. It was Ignat Dameika who introduced ... his sister Mariya Vereshchaka ... Adam Mitskevich. 5. The poet fell ... love ... her. 6. Later on he became a professor ... the University ... Chile and ... 1863-1883 he was appointed ... the rector ... the University. 7. While travelling Dameika visited some ... mines and was indignant ... unbearable conditions ... miners’ work. 8. The government of Chile asked Dameika to work ... the school reform. 9. He introduced the metric system ... measuring, wrote a textbook ... physics and mineralogy, opened a local museum ... ethnography. 10. He missed ... his Motherland greatly. 11. Dameika was declared a national hero ... the government ... Chile. 12. One ... the libraries ... Buenos-Aires was named … Dameika. 13. Belarusian people are proud ... their famous countryman.

 

X. Choose the best alternative according to the text:

 

1. In the 19th century a lot of outstanding people of Belarus

a) struggled against the Polish invaders

b) had to emigrate on political grounds

c) were members of the philamats’ secret society

 

2. Ignat Dameika was

a) a very rich and remarkable man

b) a member of the philamat’s secret society

c) participant of the Great October Socialist Revolution

 

3. This son of Belarusian land

a) contributed much to literature, methodology and pedagogy

b) contributed much to different branches of human knowledge

c) went abroad to struggle for independence of Chilean people

 

4. Adam Maltis wrote about

a) places and things named after Dameika

b) Dameika’s contribution to the governmental system of Chile

c) Dameika’s contribution to different branches of science.

 

5. The books written by Ignat Dameika

a) were published only in Chile and France

b) were of great scientific value for Belarusian people

c) were translated into many languages except Belarusian

 

6. Ignat Dameika’s friends

a) never visited his native village

b) often visited his native village

c) visited his native village only once

 

7. When Ignat Dameiko studied at the University of Vilno he

a) made friends with many famous people

b) was a slow student and missed a lot of lectures

c) fell in love but his beloved betrayed him

 

8. Adam Mitskevich, Dameika’s best friend

a) took him as a prototype in one of the poems

b) helped him to organize his expeditions

c) introduced him to his parents

 

9. Mariya Vereshzhaka was Dameika’s sister and

a) his best friend

b) Adam Mitskevich’s wife

c) Adam Mitskevich’s muse and unhappy love

 

10. Adam Mitskevich and Ignat Dameika went to Paris because

a) they wanted to study there

b) the revolt had been suppressed

c) they were asked to leave the country

 

11. Having finished his education in France Ignat Dameika

a) was invited to Chile to teach chemistry and mineralogy in Kikimba

b) decided to visit Chile because it was an exotic country

c) went to Chile because he had a friend in Kikimba



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