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История Олимпийских игр

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Study the words and the word-combinations.

 

wage wars — развязывать войны

stay out of wars — не участвовать в войнах

a ruler — правитель

suffer — страдать

recognize — признавать

a neutral state — нейтральное государство

A. D. — anno domini (our era) — наша эра

B. C. — before Christ (before our era) — до нашей эры

an athlete — спортсмен

athletic games — спортивные игры

a feast — праздник

a herald — герольд, предвестник 

hold (held – held) — держать

compete — соревноваться

a competition — соревнование

running — бег

long jump — прыжки в длину

high jump — прыжки в высоту

throwing of discus and javelin — метание диска и копья

calisthenics — художественная гимнастика

wrestling — борьба

fist fighting (boxing) — кулачный бой (бокс)

chariot races — бег колесниц

award — награждать, присуждать

olive wreath — оливковый венок

a cup — кубок

an honorary cup — почетный кубок

a craftsman — ремесленник

recite poems — декламировать стихи

a sculptor — скульптор

a statue — статуя 

take part in smth — принимать участие в чем-либо

death penalty — смертная казнь

coach = to train — тренировать

a coach — тренер

coaching, training — тренировка

do training — тренироваться

be spared the penalty — избежать наказания

a meeting = an event — соревнование по определенному виду

magnificent — великолепный

inspire — вдохновлять

an emperor Theodosius — император Феодосий

ban — запрещать

revive — возрождать

a revival — возрождение

an amateur — любитель

make a decision — принять решение

establish a Committee — образовать комитет

a debut — дебют

ice figure skating — фигурное катание на льду

 

I. Study the following expressions and translate them into Russian.

 

ancient Greeks

to take one’s side

to live at peace with neighbours

to be recognized as a neutral state

to celebrate an achievement

to organize athletic games

a whole month

to ride in all directions

every four years

the Olympic Games

to take part in the Olympic games

before our era

sports competitions

to write and recite poems

best athletes (craftsmen)

to make statues (of marble and bronze)

to put up statues

 to watch the competition

a single exception

men’s clothes

to win in many events

for religious reasons

long time afterwards

to make a public speech

an International Congress

amateur sportsmen

to make an important decision

to revive the Olympic Games

to establish the International Olympic Committee

the administration of the Olympic Games 

to control the affairs

to join the Olympic movement

the Olympic Games of modern times

winter sports

to make a debut

to take place

since that time on

 

II. Match the English expressions with their Russian equivalents.

 

1)to be spared the penaltya)долгое время спустя

2)throwing of javelinb)не участвовать в войнах

3)to celebrate an achievementc)устанавливать статуи

4)an honorary cupd)образовать комитет

5)to stay out of warse)контролировать дела

6)to establish a committeef)метание копья

7)to put up statuesg)бег колесниц

8)chariot racesh)праздновать достижение

9)to control the affairsi)избежать наказания

10)long time afterwardsj)почетный кубок

 

III Complete the following sentences using the appropriate derivatives of the words in capitals.

 

1.Best sportsmen were awarded ____ cups.HONOUR

2.Every ____ resident exercises or goes in for sports.THREE

3.The country can boast of many famous and ____ sportsmen.TALENT

4.Sport contributes to people’s health and ____ work.PRODUCT

5.Our wrestlers ____ show high standards.CONSTANT

6.Basketball is a very ____ and fast game.EMOTION

7.We have good tradition in ____ various competitions and tournaments.TO ORGANIZE

 

IV. Read the text.

The History of the Olympic Games

 

Long ago ancient Greeks often waged wars. Small states suffered and lost much even if they did not take any side and stayed out of wars. The ruler of such a small state Ellis [`i:lis] wanted to live at peace with all neighbours. He was a good diplomat and Ellis was recognized as a neutral state. To celebrate this achievement, he organized athletic games.

In the beginning this feast lasted only one day, but later a whole month was dedicated to it. All wars were stopped by special heralds who rode in all directions of Greece.

The Games were held every four years in Olympia on the territory of Ellis. The first games which later were called the Olympic Games were held about a thousand years before our era.

Usually the Olympic Games began before the middle of the summer. Best athletes arrived from all parts of Greece to Olympia to compete in running, long jump, throwing of discus and javelin, wrestling, fist fighting (boxing) and chariot races. Winners were called “olympionics”, they were awarded olive wreaths and cups of olive oil. This tradition has survived. In our time sportsmen often get cups and wreaths for winning the first place in sports competitions.

The olympionics of ancient Greece became very popular. Best craftsmen were chosen to make honorary cups, poets wrote and recited in public poems about the best athletes. Sculptors made their statues which were put up at the birthplace of winners.

Only men could take part in the Olympic Games. Women were not allowed even to watch the competition at the stadium under the fear of death penalty. There was a single exception when a woman coached her son and accompanied him to the stadium in men’s clothes. That brave woman was spared the penalty because her son won in many events. But from that time all athletes and their coaches had to compete without any clothes.

Magnificent strong bodies inspired artists and sculptors. They painted wall pictures and made statues of marble and bronze which we admire so much now.

The Olympic Games had been held for about eleven hundred years, until the emperor Theodosius banned them for religious reasons in 394 A.D.

The revival of the Olympic Games began long time afterwards, in 1892, when a young French teacher Pierre de Coubertin made a public speech before the Union of French sports clubs in Paris.

On the 23rd of June 1894 the International Congress of amateur sportsmen made an important decision: to revive the Olympic Games and establish the International Olympic Committee which would be responsible for the administration of the modern Olympic Games. The first Committee consisted of 12 members. Now 82 members control the affairs of 135 member countries which joined the Olympic movement.

The first Olympic Games of the modern times were held in 1896 in Athens, Greece. Winter sports made their Olympic debut in 1908, when ice figure skating was included in the Olympic programme among winter sports.

And in 1925 the International Olympic Committee made the decision to consider the International Winter Sports Week that had taken place in 1924 at Chamoux, France, as the first winter Olympic Games and to hold them since that time on.

 

V. Answer the questions to the text.

 

1.On what occasion did the ruler of Ellis organize athletic games ?

2.For how long did the feast last in the beginning ?

3.Who rode in all directions of Greece to stop wars ?

4.When and where did the Ancient Olympic Games take place?

5.How often were the Olympic Games held?

6.What events did the best athletes arrive to compete in?

7.How were the winners called and what were they awarded?

8.In what way were the olympionics of ancient Greece glorified?

9.Who could take part in the Olympic Games? Was there an exception?

10.Why were the Olympic Games banned by the emperor Theodosius?

11.What do you know about the revival of these popular games?

12.When and where did the first modern Olympic Games take place?

13.Who is responsible for the administration of the modern Olympic Games?

14.When did winter sports make their Olympic debut?

 

VI. Find errors in the following sentences and correct them.

 

1.Wars were often waged by ancient Greek.

2.Even if they did not took any part and stayed out of wars, small states suffered and lost much.

3.Due to it’s ruler, Ellis was recognized as a neutral state.

4.All wars was stopped by special heralds who rode in all directions of Greece.

5.Olympia where the games were held were on the territory of Ellis.

6.The tradition of awarding olympionics have survived.

7.Only man could take part in the Olympic Games.

8.Artists and sculptors was inspired by magnificent strong bodies.

9.The Olympic Games were revival only in 1892.

10.Over 135 member countries have join the Olympic movement.

 

VII. Mark the statements below as “True” or “False”.

 

1.The ruler of Ellis organized athletic games to celebrate the birth of his son.

2.The first Olympic Games were held 8 hundred years before our era.

3.As a rule the Olympic Games began before the middle of the summer.

4.Throwing of discus and javelin, wrestling and chariot races were the most popular events at the games.

5.Statues of olympionics were put at the birthplace of winners.

6.Women could compete only in certain events.

7.Athletes had to compete without any clothes because it was very hot in summer in Olympia.

8.The emperor Theodosius banned the games in 394 A.D. for private reasons.

9.The revival of the Olympic Games began shortly after they were banned.

10.The International Olympic Committee was established by the International Olympic Congress of amateur sportsmen in 1894. 

 

VIII. Put the words in the right order to make up a sentences.

 

1.Live / to / he / neighbours / at / wanted /all / with/peace.

2.Olympia / in /were / games / the / held / every / years / four.

3.Olive / awarded / were / wreaths / and / winners / oil /cups /of / olive.

4.Part / Olympic / take /women /allowed / not / were / the / in /Games / to.

5.Woman  /brave / was / that / spared / penalty / the.

6.Statues / made / sculptors / and / marble / of / olympionics / the / bronze /of.

7.French / young /a /revived / teacher / Olympic / movement / the.

8.Games / modern / of /times /the / Olympic /first / held /were / Athens / in.

9.Members / twelve /consisted / the /of /Committee / Olympic / first.

10.Stopped / wars / time /the / all /of / at / games / the.

 

IX. Complete these sentences according to the text.

 

1.To celebrate this event he organized …

2.Usually the Games began …

3.Best athletes arrived from all parts of Greece …

4.In our time sportsmen often get …

5.Women were not allowed even to watch …

6.Sculptors made their statues …

7.They painted wall pictures and made statues …

8.The Olympic Games had been held for …

9.There was a single exception when …

10.But from that time all athletes and their coaches …

 

X. Choose the correct answer.

 

1.The ruler of Ellis wanted to live at peace with all_____.

a) countriesc) teams

b) peopled) neighbours

 

2.The first games were ____ about a thousand years before our era.

a) begunc) made

b) heldd) finished

 

3.The olympionics of ____ Greece became very popular.

a) oldc) ancient

b) earlyd) modern

 

4.Magnificent bodies ____ artists and sculptors.

a) insuredc) captured

b) enlargedd) inspired

 

5.The emperor Theodosius banned the games ____ religious reasons.

a) forc) about

b) atd) from

 

6.The revival of the Olympic Games began long ____ afterwards.

a) periodc) distance

b) intervald) time

 

7.The first Olympic Games of modern times were held in ____ .

a) Londonc) Athens

b) Madridd) Paris 

 

8.Women were not allowed even to watch the ____ .

a) gamec) match

b) showd) competition

 

9.Athletes and their coaches had to ____ without any clothes.

a) listenc) play

b) competed) entertain

 

10.Only once a woman coached her son and accompanied him to the ____ in men’s clothes.

a) clubc) stadium

b) arenad) garage

 

  XI. Match to make sentences.

 

a.The brave woman was spared the penaltya)before the middle of the summer.

 

b.Pierre de Coubertin made his speechb)for winning the first place nowadays.

c.The olympionics were awardedc)at the birth place of winners.

d.Athletes often get cups and wreathsd)organized athletic games.

e.The ruler of a small state Ellise)was made in 1894.

f.In the beginningf)before the Union of French sports clubs.

g.Usually the Olympic Games begang)the feast lasted only one day.

h.Statues were usually put uph)olive wreaths and cups of olive oil.

i.An important decision to revive the Gamesi)in ancient Greece.

j.Wars were often wagedj)because her son won in many events.



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