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Времена группы PERFECT to have (has, had, will have) + Participle II

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Present

Past

Future

Affirmative

<!--[if gte vml 1]><!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]-->I

We

You           have written

<!--[if gte vml 1]><!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]-->They

 

<!--[if gte vml 1]><!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]-->He

<!--[if gte vml 1]><!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]-->She             has written

It

I

We

You

They         had written

He

She

It

<!--[if gte vml 1]><!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]-->I

<!--[if gte vml 1]><!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]-->             shall have written

We

 

<!--[if gte vml 1]><!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]-->You

They

He          will have written

<!--[if gte vml 1]><!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]-->She

It

Negative

<!--[if gte vml 1]><!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]-->I

We   have not (haven’t)

<!--[if gte vml 1]><!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]-->You         written

They

<!--[if gte vml 1]><!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]-->He         has not

<!--[if gte vml 1]><!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]-->She       (hasn’t)

It           written

I

We

You          had not

They         (hadn’t)

He            written

She

It

<!--[if gte vml 1]><!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]--><!--[if gte vml 1]><!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]-->I          shall not (shan’t)

We      have written

<!--[if gte vml 1]><!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]-->You

They       will not (won’t)

He          have written

<!--[if gte vml 1]><!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]-->She

It

Interrogative

<!--[if gte vml 1]><!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]-->I

we

Have        you  written?

<!--[if gte vml 1]><!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]-->they

 

<!--[if gte vml 1]><!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]-->he

<!--[if gte vml 1]><!--[if !vml]--><!--[endif]-->Has          she   written?

it

I

we

you

Had      they  written?

he

she

it

 

Shall     I      have written?

we

you

they

Will      he     have written?

she

it

 

 

Совершенные времена (Perfect Tenses) обозначают действие, которое совершилось к определенному моменту в настоящем, прошедшем или будущем.

Времена группы Perfect переводятся на русский язык глаголами совершенного вида.

Present Perfect часто употребляется с наречиями времени (already, just, yet, never, ever) и со словами, выражающими еще не истекшие периоды времени (today, this year, this month, this week, this morning и т.д.).

Present Perfect может употребляться для выражения действия, которое началось в прошлом и не закончилось к данному моменту, а все еще продолжается. Период действия обычно указывается с помощью слов for (в течение) или since (с, с тех пор как, с тех пор). В этом случае Present Perfect переводится на русский язык глаголом несовершенного вида: I have lived here since 1970. — Я живу здесь с 1970 года.

Определенный момент в прошлом (Past Perfect) или будущем (Future Perfect) выражается обозначениями времени с предлогом by — к (by 3 o’clock yesterday, by 3 o’clock tomorrow, by the time he сame (comes).

 

 

EXERCISES

 

Exercise 1. Answer the following questions:

 

1. Have you learnt the new words ? 2. Has your brother learnt to drive a car ? 3. Have you bought a new dictionary ? 4. How many films have you seen this month ? 5. What English books have you read this year ? 6. Where has Ann gone ? 7. Had you ever heard a word of spoken English before you went to England ? 8. Had he got his scientific degree by the end of 1990 ? 9. Had you participated in any scientific society before you entered the University ? 10. Will you have come back before the new term begins ? 11. By what time will you have reached the airport ? 12. Will he have finished his picture by November ? 13. By what time will they have sent on their heavy things ? 14. By what time will the game have started ?

 

Exercise 2. Put the verb in brackets into the Present, Past or Future Perfect Tense.

 

1. I (to hear) of him ever since I was born. 2. By the time you arrive we (to leave). 3. The students (to know) the results of the examination by 3 o’clock tomorrow. 4. By 5 o’clock the Congress (to adopt) the draft programme. 5. After they (to present) the draft of the Programme, long debates took place. 6. I (to do) already all my lessons. 7. He (to reject) just our proposal. 8. Our family (to live) in this street since we got a new flat.

 

Exercise 3. Form general or special questions with the question word given.

 

1. We have been friends since childhood. (since when) 2. The rain hasn’t stopped yet. (general) 3. The film has been on for a week. (for how long) 4. He had recovered by the time I returned from my 1еave. (general) 5. He will have worked as a teacher for 20 years by next September. (for how long) 6. The students will have started the discussion by the time you come. (who)

 

Exercise 4. Translate into English.

 

1. Он когда-нибудь показывал свои работы специалисту? 2. Этот фильм шел в нашем кинотеатре целую неделю. 3. Его лекции были всегда интересными. 4. Что с ней произошло? Я давно ее не вижу. 5. Он сказал, что его родители всегда жили в деревне. 6. Он получил плохую оценку на экзамене по английскому языку, т.к. сделал много ошибок в письменном переводе. 7. На вечере мы встретили людей, которых никогда раньше не видели. 8. Мой сын еще школьник, но на будущий год к этому времени он уже закончит школу.

 

  

Теst 1.

 

Choose the right answer:

 

1.He … to the radio when the telephone rang.

a)listened

b)is listening

c)was listening

d)listens

 

2.What … yesterday at five o’clock in the afternoon?

a)were you doing

b)was you doing

c)did you do

d)did you

 

3.My friends … to a concert tonight.

a)are going

b)is going

c)go

d)was going

 

4.It … the whole morning yesterday.

a)is raining

b)was raining

c)has been raining

d)will be raining

 

5.I … for you for almost two hours.

a)has been waiting

b)is waiting

c)have been waiting

d)have waited

 

6.She can’t help me right now, because she … on the phone.

a)talk

b)talks

c)will talk

d)is talking

 

7.While you … the shower, I’ll be cooking breakfast.

a)take

b)were taking

c)are taking

d)will take

 

8.They were wet because they … in the rain.

a)has been walking

b)walked

c)had walked

d)had been walking

 

9.The children … while their mothers were watching them. 

a)were playing

b)played

c)are playing

d)was playing

 

a)He looks so tired.  He … for his exam.

a)had studied

b)has been studying

c)have been studying

d)was studying

 

11.Don’t make any noise, he … .

a)sleeps

b)was sleeping

c)is sleeping

d)slept

 

12.He thought that I … all day.

a)shall be working

b)am working

c)shall work

d)should be working

 

13.I …for my examination in May.

a)shall prepare

b)shall be preparing

c)am preparing

d)prepare

 

14.If I … when you come, wake me up.

a)am sleeping

b)sleep

c)shall be sleeping

d)shall sleep

 

15.She … by the five o’clock train.

a)will leave

b)leaves

c)is leaving

d)will be leaving

 

 

 Теst 2.

  

1.We were good friends, we …each other for years.

a)had known

b)had knowing

c)were knowing

d)knew

 

2.He … his keys , now he can’t get into the house. 

a)had lost 

b)has losed 

c)has lost 

d)loses

 

3.I …here all my life.

a)have lived 

b)have living 

c)am living 

d)live

 

4.The boy sitting next to me on the plane was nervous because he … before.

a)has not flown 

b)did not fly 

c)had not flown 

d)has not been flying

 

5.We still … life on other planets.

a)didn’t discover 

b)hadn’t discovered 

c)won’t discover 

d)haven’t discovered

 

6.After they … they cleared the table.

a)ate 

b)had eaten 

c)have eaten 

d)were eating

 

7.…he … about the opera before ?

a)had spoken 

b)was speaking 

c)has spoken 

d)did speak

 

8.It’s the second time Kate … her passport.

a)lost 

b)had lost 

c)has losing 

d)has lost

 

9.Mum … from work by six o’clock tomorrow. 

a)will return 

b)will be return 

c)will be returning

d)will have returned

 

10.We …from her since June.

a)have heard 

b)haven’t heard 

c)had heard 

d)weren’t hearing

 

11.She … her exam by two o’clock.

a)passed 

b)have passed 

c)had passed 

d)passes

 

12.He …ill twice so far this year.

a)is 

b)has been 

c)was 

d)is being

 

13.They …us several telegrams lately.

a)send 

b)’ve sent 

c)sent 

d)will send

 

14.I was furious because I …and missed my train.

a)had overslept 

b)overslept 

c)have overslept 

d)haven’t overslept

 

15.We …this TV set for five years.

a)had had 

b)had 

c)have 

d)have had



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