Study the words and the word-combinations.
competitive sports — соревновательные виды спорта
cricket — крикет
rugby — регби
soccer — футбол
character training — тренировка характера
a team — команда
table tennis — настольный теннис
lawn tennis — большой теннис
a championship — чемпионат
horse racing — конный спорт
a race track / a race course — ипподром
a fan — болельщик
an arbiter — арбитр
conquer — завоевать
an achievement — достижение
spread (spread, spread) — распространяться
cruel — жестокий
dangerous — опасный
ban — запрещать
a swear-word — ругательство
a rule — правило
an argument — аргумент, доказательство
demand — требовать
insist on — настаивать на …
a representative — представитель
a supporter — сторонник
demonstratively — демонстративно
an opponent — оппонент
a referee — рефери
a whistle — свист, свисток
a goal — гол, ворота
score a goal — забить гол
introduce — вводить, вносить, представлять
appear — появляться
major — основной, главный
aquatic sports — водные виды спорта
heavy athletics — тяжелая атлетика
field and track athletics — легкая атлетика
a winner — победитель
a loser — проигравший
an object — цель
a goal-keeper — вратарь
a full-back — защитник
a half-back — полузащитник
a forward — форвард
kick — ударять ногой
trip — подставить ногу
push — толкать
a free kick — свободный удар
an offence — нарушение правил
penalize — наказывать
a penalty area – штрафная площадка
a penalty kick — штрафной удар
an indirect free kick — удар из-за боковой
offside (out of play) — вне игры
a line — боковая линия
throw (threw, thrown) — бросать
a defender — защитник
a goal line — линия ворот
an attacker — атакующий
a corner kick — угловой удар
conduct the game — управлять игрой
I. Complete the sentences using the following words.
Unity, the loser, the Palace of Aquatic Sports, track-and-field athletics, a coach, the winner, football, a fan, referees.
1.When we hear people speak about the queen of sports we know they mean … .
2.A basketball game is conducted by two … .
3.Boxers are always good friends no matter which of them is … or … .
4.… is the venue (place) where swimming meetings take place.
5.If track-and-field is the queen of sports then … is the king.
6.An enthusiastic supporter is called … .
7.The Olympic emblem is five interlinked rings meaning … .
8.A person who trains players for games is called … .
II. Translate into Russian.
an oval-shaped ball, a team game, spectator sports, a football arbiter, an association football, a referee’s whistle, an international match, the Olympic championship, the European winners cup, to drive a ball into the goal, hand playing, an attacking team, ancient Greeks, the Roman Empire, the European Champions Cup, the International Football Federation, to play by both feet and hands, a head trick, sport achievements, common people, honest competitions.
III. Match the English expressions with their Russian equivalents.
1.a goal linea)полузащитник
2.a penalty areab)соревновательные виды спорта
3.an indirect free kickc)угловой удар
4.to score a goald)защитник
5.a full-backe)свободный удар из-за боковой линии
6.a half-backf)боковая линия
7.a corner kickg)забить гол
8.field-&-track athleticsh)штрафная площадка
9.competitive sportsi)линия ворот
10.a touch linej)легкая атлетика
IV. Read the text.
Sports in Great Britain
For Englishmen sport is a form of physical and mental recreation. They are also great fans of competitive sports. The game peculiarly associated with England is cricket, but football is the most popular game in this country.
Two kinds of football are played in England, Association football or “soccer” and Rugby football or “rugger”. The essential differences between Rugby and Association football are that in Rugby every player is allowed to carry the ball, which is oval-shaped and not round, and that each team has 15 players.
Most schools in England take football seriously. It is believed that education is not only a matter of providing a good knowledge in the classroom: education also means character training. One of the best ways of training is playing team games, where the child has to learn to work with others for his team. Football is a good exercise for the body, it needs skill and quick brain.
In the last 50 years the popularity of tennis has increased enormously. People all over the world know Wimbledon as the center of lawn-tennis. Wimbledon is a part of Greater London. Championships begin there in June. The first lawn-tennis championship was held in Wimbledon in 1877.
Horse-racing is a very popular spectator sport in Great Britain. There are many race tracks in the country. Epsom is the world-known race-course. Fans from all over the country come to Epsom to watch race meetings.
The game itself is not new. There are many records that foot-and-ball games were known and played during many centuries before our era. In old Japan and China a game like football was very popular. There winners were awarded flowers or vases and losers … canned.
Two thousand years later in Greece a football-like game was popular among boys and girls. Beside players there was an arbiter. When ancient Romans conquered Greece, they learned and used different Greek achievements in engineering, arts and sports too. The foot-and-ball game called “haraslum” was played all over the Roman Empire, which occupied most of Europe including England.
Football in England was widely spread among peasants. The game was cruel and dangerous, that is why football was officially banned by King Edward II and several others. In one of Shakespeare’s plays we learn that “football” was used as a swear-word. In spite of royal orders football remained the game of English common people. Sometimes football matches lasted for several days!
The history of modern football began at the end of the 19th century. At that time the football rules allowed to play by both feet and hands. There were arguments between players. One side demanded that only feet should be used, while the other insisted on “feet-and-hands” rules.
The argument was so hot that when the representatives of several football clubs gathered in October 1863 in London, their opinions parted. The supporters of the “feet-and-hands” rules demonstratively left the meeting and their opponents formed their own “football Association”.
The football referees appeared only in 1878. They signaled with a bell which later was changed for a whistle. The first goal nets were first seen in 1891. In the same year the 11-metre penalty kick was also introduced. The numbers on the players’ shirts appeared only in 1939.
Football found its supporters not only in England. The first international match between the teams of England and Scotland was held in 1872.
The International Football Federation (FIFA) was formed in 1907 in Paris, France. Oddly enough, but England joined it only two years later, though English players had been the best in Europe then.
Football is now played everywhere in the world. Major international competitions are the World Cup, the Olympic championship, the European Cup-winners Cup, and the European Champions Cup.
The object of the game is to drive a leather ball into the goal. A football team has a goalkeeper, 3-4 full-backs, 2-4 half-backs, and 2-4 forwards. Nobody, except the goalkeeper, is allowed to play or even touch the ball with hands. A football match is played 90 minutes in two periods with a 10- minute interval.
The player should not kick, hack, trip or push the opponent who has the ball. All these tricks as well as hand playing are penalized by a free kick. If the offence happened in the penalty area, the 11m penalty kick is made. Smaller offences are penalized by an indirect free kick.
There is an important offside rule in football. A player is offside (out of play) if at the moment when his team-mates play the ball there is only one member of the opposing team before him.
When the ball crosses the side or touch line, it is thrown back by the player opposing those who sent it out. If it crosses the goal line from the attacking team’s players, the defenders take the indirect free kick… If it was the defender who sent the ball over his own goal line, then attackers take a corner kick from which the goal can be scored.
Three referees conduct the game: one in the field and his two assistants at the opposing touch lines.
V. Answer these questions.
— What kinds of ancient football have you learnt?
— When did football in its modern form appear?
— When was the International Football Federation formed?
— What are the major international football competitions?
— What is the object of the football game?
— Who is allowed to play with hands?
— When is a penalty kick given?
— What is an “offside” rule?
— How many referees conduct the game?
VI. Use the following word combinations in sentences of your own.
To go in for, to feel fit, to be good at, to go on a hike, to be a fan, to be a prize winner, track-and-field events, Merited Master of Sport.
VII. Mark the statements below as “True” or “False”.
1.In rugby not each player is allowed to carry the ball.
2.People all over the world know Wimbledon as the center of table-tennis.
3.Fans from all over Great Britain come to Epsom to watch horse-race meetings.
4.Foot-and-ball games were played during many centuries before our era.
5.“Footballer” was used as a swear-word at Shakespeare’s time.
6.The International Football Federation (FIFA) was founded in 1907 in London.
7.In football everybody including a goalkeeper is allowed to touch the ball with hands.
8.A football match is played 90 minutes in two periods with a 10 minute interval.
9.The 11 meter penalty kick is made when the offence happens in any area of a football-pitch.
10.A football game is conducted by three referees: one in the field and his two assistants at the opposite touch lines.
VIII. Choose the appropriate Russian equivalents to the following English phrases and sentences.
1.… the popularity of tennis has increased enormously.
a) …популярность тенниса значительно выросла.
b) …популярность тенниса выросла в значительной степени.
c) …популяризировать теннис стало проще.
2.The game itself is not new.
a) Игра в себе не нова.
b) Сама по себе игра не нова.
c) Играть с собой не новость.
3.Football in England was widely spread among peasants.
a) Футбол в Англии распространялся среди крестьян.
b) Футбол в Англии был широко распространен среди крестьян.
c) Футбол в Англии распространяли крестьяне.
4.Sometimes football matches lasted for several days.
a) Иногда футбольные матчи были последними за несколько дней.
b) Иногда футбольные матчи длились несколько дней.
c) Время от времени футбольные матчи продолжались несколько дней.
5.… their opinions parted.
a) … их мнения расстались.
b) … их мнения разошлись.
c) … их мнения приняли участие в работе.
6.Football found its supporters not only in England.
a) Футбол нашел себе опору не только в Англии.
b) Футбол нашел себе последователей не только в Англии.
c) Футбол нашли его последователи не только в Англии.
7.The numbers on the players’ shirts appeared only in 1939.
a) Число игровых маек появилось только в 1939 году.
b) Число маек игроков появилось только в 1939 году.
c) Цифры на майках игроков появились только в 1939 году.
8.… the attackers take a corner kick.
a) …атакующие берут угол для удара.
b) …атакующие берут угловой удар.
c) …атакующие наносят угловой удар.
IX. Write questions for these answers.
1.Sport is a form of physical and mental recreation. (What …?)
2.Two kinds of football are played in England. (How many …?)
3.Most schools in England take football seriously. (Where …?)
4.Lawn-tennis championships begin in Wimbledon in June. (When …?)
5.In spite of royal orders football remained the game of English common people. (disjunctive)
6.The history of modern football began in the 19th century. (alternative)
7.The object of the game is to drive a leather ball into the goal (What?)
8.The goal can be scored from a corner kick. (disjunctive)
9.Football found its supporters not only in England (General)
10.Major international competitions are the World Cup and Olympic Championship. (What other …)
X. Complete the sentences with the words from the box below.
Stadium, events(2), changing rooms, center, pitch, spectators, courts, equipment, boxing, scoreboard, pool
There is a big new sports ___ near my home. There is a football ___ , tennis and basketball ___ , a swimming ___, a sport hall with two ___ rings and even a skating-rink. There is also a separate athletics ___ where 20000 ___ can watch the track ___ on the track and the field ___, such as jumping and throwing, in the grass center. The athletes get ready in modern ___ and the officials time and measure the events with modern ___. A huge electronic ___ shows the results.
XI. Read the text below and decide which answer A, B or C best fits each space.
I am not really (1) ____ sport, but I love skiing. I took it (2) ____ while I was living abroad. It was my friends who (3) ____ me into doing it; they were all keen skiers. They just kept (4) ____ at me until I agreed to (5) ____ it a go. I had not expected to enjoy it so much – I absolutely loved it from the (6) ____ go. The sense of speed is exhilarating, and of course there is the wonderful scenery. I admit I was (7) ____ stiff the first time, but pretty soon I just wanted to carry (8) ____ skiing all day.
1.A forB intoC about
2.A upB onC down
3.A spokeB toldC talked
4.A acrossB onC over
5.A giveB putC have
6.A wordB minuteC time
7.A frightenedB scaredC terrified
8.A onB inC through